Sub-nanometer thick optical hologram work published in Nano Letters

Drs. Gao and Yang published a new concept of making optical holograms with 2D material monolayer for producing holographic images in the journal of Nano Letters, one top journal in nanoscience and nanotechnology research. Their findings hold promise for future technologies such as 3D displays for smart watches, security marking on credit cards, and biomedical imaging.

As described in their article, “Atomically thin nonlinear transition metal dichalcogenide holograms” (, the hologram is made up of only single nanopatterned tungsten disulfide monolayer punctured by a nanofabrication process known as focused ion beam milling.

“We are able to control the binary amplitude modulation of zero and one by simply etching out or keeping the tungsten disulfide monolayer area,” says Dr. Xiaodong Yang, “Our holograms possess significantly higher nonlinear conversion efficiency than the currently existing plasmonic metasurface holograms made of metallic nanostructures.”

Dr. Jie Gao also explains, “In addition, our holograms have atomic thickness of less than one nanometer, much thinner than the usual thickness of tens of nanometers for plasmonic metasurfaces and several hundred nanometers for dielectric metasurfaces.”